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市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!

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市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!

發布日期:2016-04-14 10:10 來源:http://www.gladdchina.cn 點擊:

市政管網之市政給排水工程中的頂管施工技術!


市政給排水管(guan)線施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)涉及的(de)因素(su)比較復雜,要處理(li)好施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)和各種城市生活(huo)的(de)和諧進行,管(guan)道工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)要做到(dao)盡(jin)量程(cheng)度的(de)減(jian)少施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)對居(ju)民(min)生活(huo)、交通(tong)、工(gong)(gong)作的(de)影響。

一、市政給排水管(guan)線工程施工要點

施工(gong)方案(an)對不同(tong)(tong)(tong)的管(guan)線、管(guan)質、管(guan)型和不同(tong)(tong)(tong)的路(lu)段(duan)其側(ce)重點有所不同(tong)(tong)(tong)。針(zhen)對不同(tong)(tong)(tong)路(lu)段(duan),不同(tong)(tong)(tong)的地質和環境(jing)情況,市(shi)政管(guan)網應該制訂(ding)不同(tong)(tong)(tong)的施工(gong)方案(an)。市(shi)政給排水(shui)管(guan)線施工(gong)存(cun)在以下(xia)幾(ji)種情形:

(一)開挖施工。市政管道穿越市政各(ge)種(zhong)建筑物,為避(bi)免不必要的(de)麻(ma)煩,大(da)多沿路(lu)鋪設。在非主干道或路(lu)邊不大(da)影響交(jiao)通的(de)情況下可采(cai)用明挖施工。

(二)頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)工(gong)。市(shi)(shi)政(zheng)管(guan)(guan)(guan)道(dao)(dao)(dao)在(zai)跨路施(shi)工(gong)開(kai)挖存在(zai)影(ying)響交通等(deng)各方面困難時,頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)工(gong)是一(yi)種(zhong)可(ke)行的方案選擇。頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)工(gong)從考慮人員在(zai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)道(dao)(dao)(dao)內施(shi)工(gong)作(zuo)業考慮,管(guan)(guan)(guan)徑一(yi)般在(zai)0.8m以上,有鋼(gang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)和水泥(ni)管(guan)(guan)(guan)兩(liang)種(zhong)管(guan)(guan)(guan)型,市(shi)(shi)政(zheng)排污管(guan)(guan)(guan)多用(yong)水泥(ni)管(guan)(guan)(guan),自來(lai)水和煤氣管(guan)(guan)(guan)道(dao)(dao)(dao)多用(yong)鋼(gang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)。

二、頂管施(shi)工技術(shu)

頂管法施工(gong)方(fang)法經常用(yong)(yong)于城市市政管道(dao)的(de)建設中,使(shi)用(yong)(yong)該方(fang)法占地面積(ji)少,施工(gong)控制(zhi)嚴(yan)格,可保證(zheng)交通(tong)暢(chang)通(tong);在穿(chuan)越(yue)鐵路、公路、河流、建筑物(wu)等障礙(ai)物(wu)時可減少沿線(xian)的(de)拆遷工(gong)作量(liang),降低工(gong)程造(zao)價。因此,對頂管施工(gong)技術及其引起的(de)環境效應進行深入分析、探求(qiu)解決對策具有重(zhong)要的(de)實(shi)際意義(yi)。

(一)頂(ding)管施工的基本(ben)原理:

頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)施工(gong)就(jiu)是借助于主(zhu)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)油(you)缸(gang)以(yi)及(ji)中繼間的(de)(de)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進力(li)(li),把工(gong)具(ju)管(guan)或頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)掘進機(ji)(ji)從(cong)工(gong)作(zuo)坑內穿過土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)層一(yi)直頂(ding)(ding)(ding)進到接(jie)收坑內吊起。與此(ci)同(tong)時,把緊隨在(zai)(zai)工(gong)具(ju)管(guan)或掘進機(ji)(ji)后的(de)(de)管(guan)道埋(mai)設在(zai)(zai)兩個工(gong)作(zuo)坑之(zhi)間。在(zai)(zai)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)施工(gong)中主(zhu)要有三種工(gong)作(zuo)面(mian)(mian)平(ping)衡理論:氣壓(ya)(ya)、土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壓(ya)(ya)和(he)泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡理論。本(ben)文主(zhu)要介紹泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)工(gong)法。泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)的(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)原理:通常(chang)把用(yong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)力(li)(li)切削(xue)泥(ni)(ni)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu),采用(yong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)切削(xue)泥(ni)(ni)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)而(er)采用(yong)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)力(li)(li)輸送棄土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu),同(tong)時有的(de)(de)利用(yong)泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)來平(ping)衡地(di)下(xia)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)和(he)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壓(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)這一(yi)類(lei)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)形式都稱為泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)施工(gong)。在(zai)(zai)泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)施工(gong)中,要使挖(wa)掘面(mian)(mian)上(shang)保(bao)持穩定,就(jiu)必須在(zai)(zai)泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)倉中充(chong)滿一(yi)定壓(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui),泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)在(zai)(zai)挖(wa)掘面(mian)(mian)上(shang)可以(yi)形成一(yi)層不透水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)的(de)(de)泥(ni)(ni)膜,以(yi)阻止泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)向挖(wa)掘面(mian)(mian)里滲透。同(tong)時,該泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)本(ben)身又有一(yi)定的(de)(de)壓(ya)(ya)力(li)(li),因此(ci)它就(jiu)可以(yi)用(yong)來平(ping)衡地(di)下(xia)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)壓(ya)(ya)力(li)(li)和(he)土(tu)(tu)(tu)(tu)壓(ya)(ya)力(li)(li),這就(jiu)是泥(ni)(ni)水(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)(shui)平(ping)衡頂(ding)(ding)(ding)管(guan)最(zui)基(ji)本(ben)的(de)(de)原理。

(二)頂管掘進機。

頂(ding)(ding)管機的(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)前面(mian)(mian)切(qie)割面(mian)(mian)安裝(zhuang)有合金滾(gun)動(dong)滾(gun)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)及(ji)固定刮(gua)(gua)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao),刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)座和刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)焊(han)接采用耐磨焊(han)條。市政管網滾(gun)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)及(ji)刮(gua)(gua)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)在(zai)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)的(de)(de)4把刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)桿上(shang)的(de)(de)布置是全段(duan)面(mian)(mian)切(qie)割布置,刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)每轉(zhuan)動(dong)一周,滾(gun)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)和刮(gua)(gua)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)對(dui)(dui)前面(mian)(mian)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)(ti)是全段(duan)面(mian)(mian)的(de)(de)滾(gun)動(dong)和刮(gua)(gua)動(dong)。頂(ding)(ding)管機在(zai)主(zhu)頂(ding)(ding)裝(zhuang)置的(de)(de)推(tui)動(dong)下,刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)上(shang)的(de)(de)滾(gun)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)尖對(dui)(dui)前面(mian)(mian)堅硬(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)(ti)進行滾(gun)動(dong)擠壓(ya),致使堅硬(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)(ti)破裂;刮(gua)(gua)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)對(dui)(dui)破裂的(de)(de)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)(ti)進行切(qie)割,掏(tao)空前方(fang)(fang)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)(ti),使頂(ding)(ding)管機向(xiang)前推(tui)進。頂(ding)(ding)管機的(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)和泥(ni)土(tu)(tu)倉是個多棱體(ti)(ti)(ti),且刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)是圍繞主(zhu)軸作(zuo)偏心轉(zhuan)動(dong),經過刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)對(dui)(dui)前方(fang)(fang)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)(ti)切(qie)割,當有大塊(kuai)土(tu)(tu)體(ti)(ti)(ti)或(huo)塊(kuai)石進入頂(ding)(ding)管機泥(ni)土(tu)(tu)倉,經刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)盤(pan)(pan)(pan)轉(zhuan)動(dong)時(shi)就(jiu)會被軋碎(sui),碎(sui)塊(kuai)泥(ni)土(tu)(tu)小于頂(ding)(ding)管機的(de)(de)隔柵孔就(jiu)進入泥(ni)水倉被泥(ni)水循環(huan)管輸(shu)送走。

(三)主要(yao)施工技術措施

1.泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)減(jian)阻(zu)(zu)。用泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)減(jian)阻(zu)(zu)是長距離頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)減(jian)少摩阻(zu)(zu)力的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要環(huan)(huan)節(jie)之(zhi)一(yi)。在(zai)(zai)頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)前,先用水(shui)潤(run)濕(shi)混(hun)凝(ning)土管(guan)(guan)(guan)材,然后(hou)用黃(huang)油或機油外(wai)涂。在(zai)(zai)頂管(guan)(guan)(guan)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)過(guo)程中,如果注入的(de)(de)(de)(de)潤(run)滑泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)在(zai)(zai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)子的(de)(de)(de)(de)外(wai)圍形成一(yi)個(ge)比(bi)較完整的(de)(de)(de)(de)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)套,則其(qi)減(jian)磨(mo)效(xiao)果將是十分(fen)令人滿(man)意的(de)(de)(de)(de),補漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)一(yi)般(ban)布(bu)置于中繼(ji)環(huan)(huan)后(hou)面第二(er)節(jie)管(guan)(guan)(guan)段(duan)及中斷環(huan)(huan)與工(gong)(gong)具頭及后(hou)座中間(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位置,注漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)孔按120°設置。頂進結(jie)束(shu),對已(yi)形成的(de)(de)(de)(de)泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)套的(de)(de)(de)(de)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)液(ye)進行置換(huan),置換(huan)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)液(ye)為水(shui)泥砂(sha)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)并摻入適(shi)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)粉煤灰,在(zai)(zai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)內用單螺桿(gan)泵壓住。壓漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)體凝(ning)結(jie)后(hou)(一(yi)般(ban)為24h)拆除管(guan)(guan)(guan)路換(huan)上封蓋,將孔口用環(huan)(huan)氧水(shui)泥封堵抹(mo)平。潤(run)滑泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)用壓漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)泵通過(guo)總(zong)管(guan)(guan)(guan)、支管(guan)(guan)(guan)、球閥、管(guan)(guan)(guan)節(jie)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)預留(liu)注漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)孔壓到管(guan)(guan)(guan)子與外(wai)管(guan)(guan)(guan)土體之(zhi)間(jian),包(bao)住下班鋼夾(jia)砂(sha)管(guan)(guan)(guan)。

2.偏心破碎頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)技術。施(shi)工開(kai)(kai)始時(shi)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)工具(ju)(ju)(ju)頭(tou)(進(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)洞),由千(qian)斤頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin),當頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)n節工具(ju)(ju)(ju)頭(tou)已經穿過火炬路,工具(ju)(ju)(ju)頭(tou)位置在公路邊坡擋墻下。頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)第(di)n+1節管(guan)(guan)開(kai)(kai)始,頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)系統(tong)排漿(jiang)出現(xian)碎石(shi)(shi),有堵管(guan)(guan)現(xian)象發生(sheng),排漿(jiang)泵(beng)可聽(ting)到石(shi)(shi)子與葉片撞擊(ji)聲,清理堵管(guan)(guan)管(guan)(guan)道和從(cong)泥漿(jiang)沉淀(dian)池(chi)中(zhong)撈(lao)碴可見碎石(shi)(shi)(花崗(gang)巖),棱角分明(ming),此時(shi)千(qian)斤頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)油泵(beng)油壓表明(ming)顯增大。若(ruo)頂(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)進(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)第(di)n+2節時(shi),排漿(jiang)泵(beng)被碎石(shi)(shi)卡(ka)住(zhu),則不(bu)能正常工作。

為了防止繼續發生(sheng)碎石(shi)堵(du)(du)管(guan)、堵(du)(du)泵(beng)而損(sun)(sun)壞設備(bei)(bei),可制(zhi)作(zuo)兩個(ge)“碎石(shi)攔截箱”,分別安(an)裝(zhuang)在工(gong)(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)后和(he)排(pai)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)泵(beng)前,利用它攔截排(pai)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)管(guan)排(pai)出的碎石(shi),同(tong)時采用膨(peng)潤(run)土(tu)造(zao)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)、循環泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)出碴和(he)減緩頂(ding)速的方法,防止堵(du)(du)管(guan)和(he)損(sun)(sun)壞設備(bei)(bei)。從頂(ding)進第n+3節(jie)開(kai)始,時有堵(du)(du)管(guan)、堵(du)(du)泵(beng)現象發生(sheng),油泵(beng)油壓明顯增大(da),工(gong)(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)內的排(pai)漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)管(guan)路被堵(du)(du)塞(sai),通過正反轉、加大(da)泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)比重(zhong)、循環泥漿(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)等方法,工(gong)(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)才重(zhong)新啟(qi)動、工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)。碎石(shi)對(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)格(ge)柵磨損(sun)(sun)嚴重(zhong),導致格(ge)柵脫(tuo)落,必須對(dui)其維修、加固(gu)。對(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)具(ju)頭(tou)脫(tuo)落的格(ge)柵重(zhong)新制(zhi)作(zuo)安(an)裝(zhuang)后,對(dui)其余(yu)格(ge)柵進行(xing)加固(gu),由于加固(gu)后的格(ge)柵能(neng)夠很(hen)好(hao)地解決碎石(shi)問題,保持頂(ding)力頂(ding)進,頂(ding)管(guan)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)最終(zhong)順利完(wan)成施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)任務。

(四)為(wei)了確保該工程施工,頂管作業(ye)必須做到如下幾點:

1.核(he)算最大頂力,設計足夠強度(du)和穩定的(de)后座,預先做好(hao)通過障(zhang)礙(ai)物的(de)各(ge)種可靠措施,保證開(kai)頂后連續作業(ye),以減少對列車的(de)干擾(rao)。做好(hao)扣(kou)軌、扣(kou)梁工作。

2.管道(dao)頂入(ru)路(lu)基(ji)前(qian),如(ru)(ru)需挖去部分(fen)邊坡,只能(neng)與線路(lu)架空工作(zuo)同時進行(xing),不能(neng)提(ti)前(qian)開(kai)挖。開(kai)挖后(hou)要(yao)有防(fang)護措施,如(ru)(ru)發生路(lu)基(ji)坍(tan)塌,應及(ji)時堆碼沙包、草袋和回(hui)填。涵洞(dong)頂進到(dao)位后(hou),立即砌筑端(duan)翼墻及(ji)護錐,防(fang)止路(lu)基(ji)塌方。

3.頂(ding)進中嚴格控制超挖(wa)(wa)。頂(ding)管作業一般超挖(wa)(wa)不得超過30 cm,管下部135°范圍(wei)內及管底部不得超挖(wa)(wa),市政管網以保(bao)持原狀土的路(lu)基,并(bing)按(an)規定保(bao)持安全開挖(wa)(wa)坡度,防止(zhi)塌方。如發生塌方危及列車安全,應立即停止(zhi)頂(ding)進,根(gen)據線路(lu)變(bian)化情況降速或封鎖線路(lu)。

4.要及時(shi)測量頂(ding)進(jin)方(fang)向及高程,隨時(shi)進(jin)行糾偏。對頂(ding)進(jin)過程中的偏差,必(bi)須及時(shi)發現并及時(shi)糾正,也是頂(ding)管成功的關(guan)鍵(jian)。

三、市政給水(shui)管線工程質量監理

進(jin)一步(bu)理順質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)管理體系,提高企業內部素質(zhi)(zhi),引人(ren)社會監(jian)理,加強和(he)完善政府監(jian)督(du)機(ji)制,加大質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)監(jian)督(du)的力度;進(jin)一步(bu)規范(fan)建設(she)(she)行(xing)為引人(ren)競爭機(ji)制實行(xing)設(she)(she)計、施(shi)工、監(jian)理招標(biao)投(tou)標(biao)制,從制度上保證工程質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)的穩步(bu)提高;加強對(dui)工程實施(shi)過程中的監(jian)督(du)管理,抓住關鍵問(wen)題(ti)和(he)重(zhong)要工序,嚴格遵守設(she)(she)計及施(shi)工規范(fan)技(ji)術標(biao)準控(kong)制質(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)問(wen)題(ti)的出現。


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